PROBLEMS & PROSPECTS OF REVOLUTION IN NEPAL
[A Collection of Articles by Com. Prachanda and Other Leaders of the CPN (Maoist)]

Nepalese revolution: How is it interlinked with world revolution?
-Com Gaurav

 A glorious and momentous People's Revolution is advancing in Nepal in leaps and bounds thereby influencing not only the politico-military- economic situation of Nepal but also that of the world politics to a considerable extent. US imperialism has vowed to collide with this revolutionary war along with its accomplice the British imperialism and its allied imperialist forces of Bush's " war on terror". Serious debates are going on also at the international forums of the reactionary states on how to combat this revolution at the Himalayan country. In the international meeting of the donor states in London, which was sponsored by Tony Blair's government on mid-July of this year, sharp differences came up regarding the nature and character of the aids to be provided to the Gyanendra-Paras-Deuba regime of Nepal. US and its accomplice UK, were virtually in minority when all the other representatives opposed to assist the tottering "Nepal government" through military aid. They put forward their opinion that Nepal should be provided assistance in humanitarian and development works, not at the military equipment. Tony Blair government was exposed in its own parliament when it conspired to provide 2 military planes, 2MI-17 support helicopters, explosive ordinance disposal gear and military training to the regime of Nepal through 'Global Conflict Prevention Pool' which is run by the ministry of defense, the foreign office and the international development department, without being discussed the issue properly at the house. There was furor in Belgian six-party coalition government led by Guy Verhofstadt, after the government decided to make an arm deal with tottering Gyanendra-Deuba regime of Nepal. Belgian Green Party leader and vice-prime minister of Belgian government Magda Aelvoit resigned from the cabinet at the beginning of the third week of August, in protest against the deal of selling modern weapons (particularly, machine guns), because Belgian law bans arms exports to countries engaged in civil war. The government was hardly survived in the no-confidence motion in parliament at this issue. Germany had already refused a shipment of arms. Deuba, in his visit to Belgium to procure the arms faced big protest demonstrations. One progressive organization of Nepalese in Belgium gave letters of protest against this arm deal and against ongoing genocide by the Royal Nepalese Army (RNA) and also demanding the lifting the emergency in Nepal. Thus it was not an easy matter for the Belgian government at this arms deal with such a fascist genocidal government against a people's revolution of Nepal. Because of all these developments the reactionary Verhoftadt government was compelled to postpone arm supply for few months.

 So far the US senate is concerned, it demonstrated it self to be so diehard reactionary that there is no party in the senate to raise any voice against loot, plunder, oppression, brutal attacks and savage war against any country and the people carried out by the government. It is a matter of shame to claim US as one of the greatest democracies in the world, where there is no real opposition in the parliament, ruling party and "opposition" is alike! Just the shareholders!

 Thus the Nepalese Revolution influences directly to the world political events at different levels. The Nepalese Revolution, which is considered as a beacon of revolution for the oppressed in the contemporary world situation, has been proving as a challenge for this rotten system of imperialism and reaction. Consequently, the Maoists and other revolutionary forces are waging various levels of struggle and solidarity action in support of the Nepalese Revolution, in various parts of the globe on the one hand and US imperialism and reactions are vowed to suppress it on the other. Thus the ongoing Nepalese Revolution both on the part of revolutionary forces and the masses and that of imperialism and reaction has become a subject of serious concern and all have to play their role according to their own outlook and class interest. Therefore, it will be a sheer ignorance to conceive the Nepalese Revolution as insignificant in world perspective and confining it to the territory of Nepal.

Nepalese Revolution: Part of the World Revolution

 In spite of many specificities of our society the Nepalese Revolution is based on the principle pro-pounded by com. Mao. This revolution in its character is anti-imperialist and anti-feudal and anti-bureaucrat and comprador bourgeoisie. It is a democratic revolution but not of the old type but that of a new type. In spite of its bourgeois democratic character, how this revolution is a part of the world proletarian revolution is required to be understood necessarily. Only then it is understandable to every body why this revolution deserves to get worldwide support from the proletariat and all other revolutionary forces and oppressed masses and how it serves the world revolution. Following quote from the writings of Com. Mao is quite relevant:
 "Although such a revolution in a colonial and semi-colonial country is still fundamentally bourgeois-democratic in its social character during its first stage or first step, and although its objective mission is to clear the path for the development of capitalism, it is no longer a revolution of the old types led by the bourgeoisie with the aim of establishing a capitalist society and a state under bourgeois dictatorship. It belongs to the new type of e revolution led by the proletariat with the aim, in the first stage, of establishing a new-democratic society and a state under the joint dictatorship of the revolutionary classes. Thus this revolution actually serves the purpose of clearing a still wider path for the development of socialism. In the course of its progress, there may be the number of further sub-stages, because of changes on the enemy's side and within the ranks of our allies, but the fundamental character of the revolution remains unchanged.
 “Such a revolution attacks imperialism at its very roots, and is therefore not tolerated but opposed by imperialism. However, it is favoured by socialism and supported by the land of socialist international proletariat. Therefore, such a revolution inevitably becomes part of the proletarian-socialist world revolution.”1

 The quote presented above is self-evident which throws light enough to characterize the Nepalese Revolution at this particular stage and its links and ties with the world proletarian and socialist revolution. Proletariat never hides the reality and thus it has already declared that after the coup in China, following the death of Mao, proletariat lost state power and the socialist base resulting proletarian revolution in any particular country to deprive of getting support of the proletarian or the socialist state. Therefore, right at this juncture, proletarian revolution, whether it may be New Democratic or Socialist, is constrained to advance in very difficult situation. The ongoing revolution of Nepal cannot be exception. But we Maoist, with this given situation never draw a conclusion that revolution cannot be initiated, sustained and developed. Just contrary to that our conclusion is that revolution not only can be initiated and sustained but also can be developed, succeed and conquered. Revolutions sustaining and developing in Nepal, Peru, India, Turkey, Philippines, and preparation going on in various other countries under the leadership of the Maoist parties are the living proof of how our conviction is based on scientific laws.

 From what we discussed above, it is obvious that in absence of a socialist camp or socialist base, our class the proletariat and all the oppressed revolutionary masses require more international unity than ever before. Our glorious Party, CPN (Maoist) firmly upholds that in the given situation, unity of our class is increasingly necessary, without which revolution in a single country to succeed is almost unrealizable, in case it succeeds, it is equally difficult to sustain. It will be relevant to mention couple of sentences from the document adopted by the Second National Conference of our Party, which reads:
 "Due to such specific economic, political, cultural, and geographical conditions and hegemony a of Indian monopoly capitalism, it is very difficult to fully accomplish the New National Democratic Revolution and if it succeeds in specific situation of contradiction, it will be almost impossible to be sustained. The revolutionaries have to focus their attention seriously at the point that due to the force of common and joint struggles, according to the condition of uneven development, particular country or particular area of a particular country can be liberated and which only enables to play the role of Base Area in the direction of the revolution of the whole region."2

 Though the document talks about the situation of South Asian Region, but it seems to be relevant for the situation of the world today. The main thrust is at the importance of the solidarity and unity of revolutionary forces in fulfilling the revolutionary tasks. The relevance of the present situation, in which there is absence of proletarian state and socialist base, calls forth all the revolutionaries of the world to strengthen their unity and solidarity more than ever before, thereby engendering a tremendous strength of the proletariat and revolutionary masses, which can combat imperialism and reaction by accomplishing revolutions in individual countries.

 When we talk about international solidarity of revolutionary forces and carrying out world revolution, we must talk about international organization as a vehicle of such a unity and solidarity. It is well known that we have no any international today, but the proletariat is making untiring efforts to advance in that direction. Formation and strengthening of Revolutionary internationalist Movement (RIM) can be considered as important step forward in this march.

 Revolutionary Internationalist Movement (RIM), has played and is playing significant role in strengthening the unity of Maoist forces and other revolutionary forces at the world level. Though all the Maoist forces have not yet joined the RIM, but as an international center of Maoists, RIM has been widely acknowledged. The Co-ordination Committee of Maoist Parties and Organisations (CCOMPOSA), which incorporates almost all the Maoist forces of South Asia within and outside the RIM, has adopted a unanimous Declaration in its recently held Second Conference, which acknowledges RIM as follows:
 "The inherent characteristics of ever concentration and centralization of capital and the resultant uneven and unequal development in the world scale has aggravated the crisis of the world imperialist system and created an excellent objective condition for the world proletarian revolution in the beginning of the twenty first century. However, subjectively, the International Communist Movement suffered one of the greatest setbacks in its entire history in 1976, when the revisionists usurped state power as well as the leadership of the party by a reactionary coup d'etat " in China following the death of Mao Tse-tung. Restoration of capitalism resulted in depriving the proletarian class of the leadership at the international level and the socialist base as well. In that course it had to fight against not only Khrusehovite and Dengist modern revisionism but also Hoxaite dogmato-revisionism. Despite fierce attacks from imperialism and its lackeys and betrayal of opportunists from within the movement itself; the genuine Marxist-Leninist-Maoists throughout the globe refused to abandon the struggle for communism. Contingents of the world proletariat made their utmost efforts to reorganize our class at the international level giving birth to various new initiatives, out of which the initiative of revolutionary internationalist Movement (RIM), is a prominent one"3.

 It is obvious for every body that South Asia is now a storm center of world revolution. After the US crusade against Afghanistan in the pretext of September l1 and open declaration of "war on terror" (which really means war against the oppressed masses) by US led imperialist alliance headed by Bush &Co. and targeting direct military intervention over sovereign countries and the toiling masses, the world situation is undergoing profound changes, giving rise to more intense revolutionary waves at the world level. In this particular world situation every revolution should be more closely linked up and combined with world revolution and anti-imperialist struggle at the global level.

 Ongoing revolutions in the world today under the leadership of the Maoist Parties -such as in Nepal, Peru, India, Turkey, Philippines etc. have achieved tremendous importance in the vigorous fight against imperialism and reaction. The strong People's War developing in Nepal under the leadership of Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), a genuine and correct Maoist Party, which is at the forefront, is really a highly significant event of the world today. It is thus quite understandable why the People's War of Nepal deserves to be and is getting extensive support from the revolutionaries and oppressed masses of the world and has become the target of US led imperialist alliance in general and US-British imperialist in particular. Why the US super power is so much involved against the ongoing revolution in a small and poor country like Nepal, preventing the people of Nepal to decide their destiny by themselves? It is only because though in a small country Nepalese Revolution is hitting right at the heart of imperialists' interest and inspires revolutionary forces and millions of oppressed masses of the worldwide fight against imperialism and the reaction.
 “Today we can see more sharply the direct links between opposing the US imperialist-led crusade and our ongoing task of supporting the People's War in Nepal. There is the very concrete and immediate task of staying the hand off the US and the world reaction, which is already intervening in Nepal to a significant degree and threatening and preparing to do so in a qualitatively greater way in the period ahead."4This opinion and determination expressed by the CoRIM reflects the real assessment of the role of the People's War of Nepal and how the US imperialism is intervening and is going to do so in qualitatively higher level in the days to come. As envisaged by the CoRIM "the very concrete and immediate task of staying the hand of the US and world reaction" has become an urgent and inevitable task of the revolutionaries of the world to safeguard and promote the achievements which have already been made in Nepal.

 Why the only super power of the world today is hunting so much to the revolution of Nepal? There are some specific reasons for that. The PW in Nepal has developed from strategic defense to strategic equilibrium and making efforts to develop to another qualitatively higher stage of strategic offence Relatively stable base areas are sustaining and new people's power is constantly being exercised in the vast countryside and preparations are on to capture the countrywide power. The ruling class and the regime are in insurmountable crisis and have repeatedly corroborated its inability to fight the Maoist PW and are surviving on imperialist patronage. In spite of all efforts of US and its stooge the tottering regime of Nepal to isolate the PW projecting it as "terrorist", people are not ready to be deluded by this false propaganda and just contrary to that the PW is enjoying wide support of the masses of various parts of the globe. It is very hard to tolerate this development of PW for Bush, which provoked him consequently making the Nepalese Revolution its target.

Struggle Against US War of Aggression

 George Bush has already declared war against the people of the world in the guise of "war on terror". US-British army killed thousands of innocent people of the impoverished country of Afghanistan, maiming many more and torturing another thousands not only in Afghan prisons but in US especial torture cells in Cuba. This warmonger has made Iraq as its second target and has already flied its fighter Jets in Iraqi sky. But he has temporarily retreated from massive bombings due to tremendous international pressure. Massive attacks on Palestine people are continuing unabated by its Middle-East watchdog Israel. Though the Maoist Movements of Nepal and other countries are not under the US list of "terrorists", but it will not make any difference. They are not keeping these names in the "list" only because of the apprehension of being further exposed among the masses. This can be correctly understood through the news we received from Revolutionary Worker, a leftist weekly coming out from USA, which says "The People's War in Nepal is a genuine war of liberation that has nothing in common with groups like al Qaida. But the Nepalese government and the Indian government have officially labeled the CPN (Maoist) terrorist. And the rulers of Nepal have packaged their plea for foreign help to fight the insurgency as part of the "global fight against terrorism ." Again, the US State Department has not put the CPN (Maoist) on their official list of 'terrorists" But the US government-along with Britain and other imperialist powers are all-supporting the Nepalese regime's campaign against the Maoists, in which hundreds of people in Nepal's countryside are being killed; many more, accused of being "Maoist sympathizers", are being rounded up and jailed; and all kinds of constitutional rights have been suspended. US secretary of state Colin Powell went to Nepal in January to meet with the King, Prime Minister and head of the Royal Nepalese Army. President Bush invited Nepal's Prime Minister Deuba to the White House to talk in May and then asked congress to approve $20 million in military and economic aid for Nepal.

Christina Rocca, Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs, testified to the House International Relations Committee that "The Maoists [in Nepal] have shown themselves to be a ruthless enemy by their tactics in the field and through terrorist attacks against both government targets and innocent civilians." And the US government has given special training on "resistance against Maoist terrorism" to Nepali officials."5

 Forces ranging from Maoists to Islamic fundamentalists are at the target of US imperialism. Though the immediate targets of US imperialism are some Islamic forces, but these are not its ultimate targets. Ultimate targets are Maoists and other revolutionary forces and masses.
 The Indian state, which is expansionist, has become more aggressive these days when Maoist PW is advancing towards natiomwide conquer of power. The Indian fascist state shattering all its so called "one of the biggest democracy of the world" veil, is constantly assaulting the journalists, human right activists and social leaders of Nepalese people in India and extraditing to the fascist Gyanendra-Deuba regime of Nepal. Their sole crime was that they supported the cause of the Nepalese masses and opposed the fascist repression unleashed by the regime of Nepal. This assault has been intensified by the Indian State especially since the last August and is going on unabated. One of the tasks of the Indian state has now become espionaging the Maoists and their sympathizers, if there are any in India and submitting them to their accessory, the hated fascist Nepalese regime. Why the Indian police are so loyal to the Nepalese regime is really ignominious. This type of naked assault to Nepalese revolutionaries was hardly seen before in the history of India. It has been outspread after US came at the front to suppress the Nepalese revolution and India works as lackey of US imperialism. Main reason is that present Indian state is exercising all out fascism in its entire work. Guiding line of the present Indian state is Hindu fascism, which is being exercised in domestic as well as its foreign policy, which is being clearly manifested in the recent assault and extradition of Nepalese personalities.

 Now the question before all of us is, who will lead this anti-US imperialist struggle and how can it be advanced ?

 We Maoists through scientific analysis have drawn conclusion that only proletariat has the capacity to lead such anti-imperialist struggle thoroughly and up to the end. Many people doubt about it and draw other conclusions. Some misguided people even go to the extent of looking forward to AlQuida. The root cause of this type of idea is frustration and disappointment. Real practice has repeatedly proved even recently that such fundamentalist forces have not that capacity to lead anti imperialist struggles. How the Taliban regime of Afghanistan fell so facilely in the face of US attack is the recent example. It is likely that Iraq may ( withstand against US attack through the strength of anti-US opinion of the world people and its own military capability. But it has no capacity of leading this struggle. It has not clear-cut anti-imperialist line, it has no such history and it has no such an aim. Everybody knows what treatment Saddam has met with Kurdistan Movement. It does not mean that we should not support Iraqi people in their fight against US aggression; we should strongly support them in this genuine battle. Only point is that we should not lose sight from the scientific principle of characterization of the political forces and that of the struggle.

 Therefore, it is Maoist forces, which has the capacity of leading this anti-imperialist struggle. We are not talking here about the capacity of Maoist forces fight against US super power militarily. It is known to all that US is a super power and has piled huge stock of lethal arms. What we mean by anti-imperialist struggle is not the arm conflict with US. It is the question of building anti-US imperialist movement at the world level in a conscious and planned way, by incorporating broadest level of masses on the basis of a correct line.

 This is 'era of imperialism and proletarian revolution' whose specific feature is the revolution, whether it may be new democratic or socialist, or national liberation movement in individual countries are closely linked up with anti-imperialist - struggle. Obviously, imperialism involves itself and stands against all revolutions taking place in any country, without exception. This fact has been repeatedly verified by practice in the past and also at present. When Maoist People's Liberation Army (PLA) strikes on the reactionary fascist state of Nepal and its armed forces US imperialism feels wounded and starts reacting against CPN (M) and the PLA at different levels. It has happened several times in the past . Recently, the reactionary state of Nepal and its army has been very badly demoralized after the two consecutive successful military actions carried out by the PLA at Bhiman of Sindhuli district on 8 September and at Sandikharka of Argakhanchi district at the next day, capturing all the arms and ammunitions and all the government offices including bank and killing about 125 govemment security forces. Right at this situation, at the occasion of observing the '11 September' (which has nothing to do with CPN (M) and its PLA), the US ambassador to Nepal persisted Maoists to surrender arms and come to the negotiation with the government. It is obvious how they interlink US interest with each gain of ongoing Nepalese revolution. It is also true for revolutions in other countries how the US imperialism expresses its concern to suppress the armed revolutionary struggles led by CPI(ML)(PW) and MCC in India, how it is acting against the revolutionary struggle of Philippines in the name of wiping out Abu Sayed outfit and how the US is involving to suppress the revolutionary movement in Peru and Turkey. So, these are the clear signals how the Maoist forces are ultimate targets of US "war on terror".

 Thus the master plan of Bush to launch war of aggression against revolutionary forces, against the masses and against the various states, especially aftermath of 11 September has caused the world situation to undergo change in various aspects. Coming months and years are sure to be marked by revolutionary upsurges and reactionary suppressions giving rise to excellent opportunities and new level of dangers and challenges. So, revolutionary forces in general and Maoist revolutionaries in particular have to be prepared to meet this new challenge and turning it to excellent opportunity for revolutionary transformations. Our Party is ready to shoulder this responsibility working along the side with all Maoists and other revolutionary forces to intensify our struggle further to achieve our objective and goal. Maoists and revolutionaries of the world unite! Workers and oppressed people of the world unite!
(January 2003)



Endnotes:
1 Selected Works of Mao Tse -Tung, Vol. II, On New democracy, p.344
2 Documents of the Second National Conference of CPN (Maoist), translated from Nepali
3 Declaration of CCOMPOSA, adopted by its Second Annual Conference held in August 2002
4 CoRIM Circular3-10, 27 July 2002
5 Revolutionary Worker 1166, September 15, 2002