PROBLEMS & PROSPECTS OF REVOLUTION IN NEPAL
[A Collection of Articles by Com. Prachanda and Other Leaders of the CPN (Maoist)]

Philosophical Concept of Prachanda Path
- Com. Kiran
1. Introduction

 Prachanda Path is the set of ideas that has emerged amidst application of MLM in the particularity of Nepalese revolution and it has strength to serve world revolution. Owing to rapid development of the great People’s War under the guidance of Prachanda Path, Nepal has become today the center of attraction and hope of the world proletariat and exploited and oppressed masses.

 Germany, which was backward compared to advanced England and France, gave Marxism. Russia that was backward compared to Europe and other countries gave birth to Leninism. China, which was underdeveloped and oppressed by imperialism, gave rise to Maoism. Today, the credit of giving birth to new ideas in the form of other height of Prachanda Path is going to Nepal, the third poorest country of the world. It is a matter of glory.

 Nepal, a small country of the Himalayan sub-continent had in the ancient times given historic message of new ideas and philosophy to the world. Gautam Buddha, a great thinker that gave message of atheism, dialectics and federalism to the world was a Nepali. Likewise, a preacher of Shankhya philosophy, Kapil, who gave the message of materialism and dialectics to the world and who is assumed to be the founder of Kapilvastu, the district where Gautam Buddha was born, is also a great philosopher of Nepal. Prachanda Path is excellently advancing ahead in the process of connecting this link of history that gave the message of new ideas and philosophy to the world.

 Marxism has three component parts, they are – philosophy, political economy and scientific socialism. Prachanda Path, which is the developed set of ideas of MLM, is also formed comprising of these three component parts. Among these three, here an effort has been made to have a short discussion on philosophy of Prachanda Path.

2. Concept Regarding Theory

 Development of Prachanda Path as a whole and its philosophical concept has taken place in the background of grasp of MLM, historic necessity of class struggle of Nepalese revolution, the struggle against all kinds of wrong thinking and trends prevailing in Nepalese communist movement and the synthesis of positive and negative experiences of international communist movement.

 Comrade Prachanda has grasped the theory of MLM as a science of revolution. By grasping seriously the theoretical contributions of Mao, he, first of all in the Nepalese communist movement, put forward an concept of using the terminology of Maoism in place of Mao Thought. In the document entitled "On Maoism" which was presented and adopted in the Unity Congress, he, by refining this concept further, synthesized scientifically the theoretical contribution of Mao in the form of MLM. With the grasp of this science of revolution, he raised high the flag of struggle against reformism, which was deep rooted in the Nepalese communist movement, in order to defend, apply and develop it. He said, "Marxism, because of being a science, has clarified its character that it must go on developing by confronting against new forms of problems emerged in new situations.

Accordingly, Marxism has in course of struggle developed into MLM today. One of the characteristics of today’s reformism is that it denies the summit of development of Marxist science by opposing Maoism. ... Problem of development of revolutionary movement is the problem of struggle against reformism, that is, it is a problem of defending, applying and developing the revolutionary theory." [Problems of Nepalese Revolution, (In Nepali) Part-1, p.3]. Comrade Prachanda has been specifically emphasizing on the concept of defense, application and development of revolutionary principle.

 Prachanda Path has been termed in the historical Second National Conference of C.P.N. (Maoist) as an ideological synthesis of rich experiences of five years of the great People’s War. The Party, in this conference, has taken up Prachanda Path as an inseparable dialectical unity between international content and national expression, universality and particularity, whole and part, general and particular, and has comprehended that this synthesis of experiences of Nepalese revolution would serve world proletarian revolution and proletarian internationalism.

 On the process of development of Prachanda Path and its phases, Comrade Prachanda says, "This synthesis of experiences, according to the theory of knowledge of dialectical materialism, has been acquired from the process of practice, knowledge, again practice and again knowledge. MLM has taught us that this cycle goes on moving up to infinity." (The Great Leap Forward: An Inevitable Need of History, p.79).

 Development of Prachanda Path is advancing ahead in its third phase. These phases can be presented as: political and military line of Nepalese revolution that was adopted in the Third Expanded Meeting of C.P.N. (Maoist) held in 1995 -- the first phase; ideological synthesis of the rich experiences of five years of great People’s War that took place in the historical Second National Conference of C.P.N. (Maoist) held in 2001 – the second phase and the process of development following this conference -- the third phase. Comrade Prachanda has also shed light on the process of development of Prachanda Path that according to the theory of knowledge of dialectical materialism it goes on constantly developing through the course of practice, knowledge, again practice and again knowledge. While looking at from this angle, it is found that Prachanda Path also is rapidly developing to its third phase with the speedy development of Nepalese revolution and the People’s War.

 Along with the grasp of MLM, Prachanda Path has been developing in the process of its defense, application and development and this concept also carries specific international significance regarding the process of development of revolutionary theory.

 Philosophical concept of Prachanda path can basically be studied as follows.
3. Dialectical Materialism

 Comrade Prachanda has defined philosophy of dialectical materialism as the philosophy of struggle of a Communist Party and has said that its development too takes place amidst struggles. The philosophy of Prachanda Path is dedicated to the interest of proletarian class and oppressed masses and the great goal of communism.

(a) System of Materialist Dialectics

 In the history of philosophy, two kinds of world outlooks that look at every matter, event and the process remain in action are – dialectics and metaphysics. Comrade Prachanda has been standing for materialist dialectics against metaphysics.

 Comrade Prachanda, siding with dialectical materialist world outlook on development and opposing the metaphysical one, which has been dominant in the Nepalese communist movement, says, "Dialectical materialism the world outlook of MLM holds that the reason behind the development and destruction of every event of nature, society and human thinking lies in the inherent absolute character of struggle that exists also in the relative unity of opposites of a matter or the related question. Dialectics of development of each object and its phenomenon, which are interrelated with each other and exist constantly in a dynamic flow of changes, is such that, as Lenin said, does not take place in a straight line but takes place in a spiral form, that development does not take place spontaneously without notice and in a gradual way, rather it does in the form of a rupture in continuity, leap, catastrophe and revolution, in the form of transformation of quantity to quality and negation of negation. This is the essence of Marxist dialectics on development.” [Problems of Nepalese Revolution, (in Nepali), Part-2, p. 1-2]. Here, on the development of an object, the Marxist concept of unity of opposites, transformation of quantity into quality and negation of negation and opposition to metaphysical conception that advocates that external reason, opposing the inner struggle inherent in it, is the main cause of development of an object, perceives development in straightforward not in a zigzag way and holds gradual development against qualitative leap have been forcefully presented.

 "It is self-evident that the struggle, which establishes MLM in the movement, has a special philosophical significance. In the course of struggling against the reformist and evolutionary concept of development prevalent in the Nepalese communist movement, the Party did sharpen specially the science of development of Marxist dialectics regarding collision, rupture, leap and catastrophe. This thought gave a big blow to the opportunism that was cultivating reformism in the name of quantity, by harboring a mechanical view on quantitative and qualitative change, and provided a strong base for the initiation of revolution. From the historic initiation of People’s War to this day, special directive of this very revolutionary conception of collision, rupture, leap and catastrophe in the Party's policy, plan and program has ensured continuous lifeblood to class struggle and two-line struggle. Typical experiences have been gained in the course of solving problems of class struggle and two-line struggle through the application of Maoist dialectics on the law of contradiction. The process of application of the science of "one divides into two" and the unity -struggle -transformation of the opposites from the heights of the lessons of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, has led to the development of a unique wealth in the form of continuous development and establishment of the revolutionary current within the Party on the basis of broad democracy by defeating all sorts of non-proletarian tendencies, which has enabled to smash the chain of conspiracies by reaction and revisionism. Guided by this particular concept the currently undergoing Party rectification campaign has, through the process of unity-struggle-transformation, raised the Party to unprecedented heights of new unity on a new basis. The application of class struggle in the course of struggle against revisionist thinking of from book to book, from thought to thought and from reform to reform, has led to the development of a distinctive thought of grasping the dialectical materialist theory of knowledge. The Party has been developing distinctive revolutionary conceptions on the operation of dialectical relations between objective and subjective conditions, between the whole and the part and between quantity and quality. It is clear that a distinctive thought is taking shape with the above applications in the field of philosophy, after the archetypal development of People’s War for five years. (Ibid. Part-2, page 192-193).

 Because of underlying specificity of materialist dialectics, the concrete backdrop of its application in Nepalese revolution and amidst this process the fact that specific ideas have been developing in the domain of philosophy also are forcefully expressed in these quotations. These ideas, which have been very concisely presented, are philosophically very sound and essential.

(b) Basic Law of Materialist Dialectics

 Comrade Prachanda has grasped deeply the law of unity of opposites -- the law of one divides into two and the law of contradiction -- as the only basic law of dialectics. Comrade Prachanda says, "Unity and struggle of opposites is the basic law of dialectics". (Ibid. p. 76). This concept is based upon Maoism.

 Likewise, Comrade Prachanda, shedding light on the nature of unity and struggle of opposites, further says, "Unity is relative, temporary and transitional, where as, the struggle is constant and absolute." (Ibid. p. 76). Here, on one hand, the concept that holds that the unity of opposites is relative, temporary and transitional and struggle is absolute has been firmly grasped and the reformism and revisionism, which is dominant since long in the Nepalese communist movement that assume the unity of opposites is absolute and the struggle is relative and temporary, have been attacked upon, on the other.

 Comrade Mao had initiated struggle against both kinds of metaphysics in which one holds the unity of opposites in the sense of monolithism and other separates such type of unity into pluralism. Standing upon the foundation of Mao’s philosophical concept, Comrade Prachanda’s role in the task of effectively advancing this struggle further is remarkable. He says, "Comrade Mao’s evaluation of Stalin is against the right revisionist turncoat that negates him completely, on one hand, and the sectarian dogmato-revisionism that shows even the mistakes of Comrade Stalin as positive, on the other. In the international communist movement, Trotsky, Tito, Khruschov etc. fall under the first category, whereas, Enver Hoxa of Albania falls under the second one. Another important point to note is that Euro-Communism, in the pretext of opposing Stalin's concept of monolithic unity and bureaucracy, began opposing the integrated dialectical materialist science of Marxism from a bourgeois anarchist pluralist angle." (The Great Leap Forward....,p. 9-10). These ideas, which in the process of enriching and developing unified dialectical materialism are directed against modern, dogmatic and pluralistic revisionism, are of forceful and universal significance.

 Comrade Prachanda, in the context of mentioning basic laws of dialectics, has shed light on quantitative and qualitative changes. In relation to quantitative and qualitative changes, concept of Prachanda Path is based upon Leninism. In this context, he has on one hand accepted the significance of gradual changes and, on one other, has specifically emphasized upon collision, rupture, leap and catastrophe of the qualitative change.

 While talking about materialist dialectics, it is found that Comrade Prachanda has paid necessary attention to thesis-antithesis and synthesis or the negation of negation. In the context of evaluating the process of development of Party history he, in the same document, says, "While synthesizing Nepalese communist movement it can be said that it is advancing ahead achieving new unity in a new basis according to the dialectical law of unity-struggle-transformation or thesis-antithesis and synthesis. ... The entire process of Nepalese communist movement can also be understood in the form of negation of negation. Revisionism negated the initial correct line of Party and the correct revolutionary line again negated revisionism. As a result of this, the great process of People’s War came forward. But, if it is understood or meant in the sense that this process has been completed and ended here, it would be against the dialectical law of development. This process of unity-struggle-transformation will go on continuously." Here, Comrade Prachanda has, on the basis of negation of negation, presented excellently the dialectical process of development between Marxism and revisionism prevailing in the Nepalese communist movement. This concept of Prachanda Path about thesis-antithesis and synthesis and negation of negation is based upon the basic law of dialectics -- the unity of opposites, against the triplistic concept on development.

 While mentioning the concept presented by Prachanda Path on the basic laws of materialist dialectics, it is necessary to pay special attention to two points. First: Prachanda Path, by accepting the law of unity of opposites as the basic law of dialectics, has included the law of mutual transformation of quantity and quality and negation of negation into that basic law. Second: it has in the course of struggle against monolithism and pluralism enriched and developed the law of unity of opposites.

(c) Epistemology of Dialectical Materialism

 The dialectical materialism is directed against idealism. Comrade Prachanda, struggling against such kind of idealism on the basis of dialectical materialism has excellently clarified the fact that the development and refinement of revolutionary theory has been established amidst the great People’s War. He says, "The bourgeois idealist cycle of idea, idea and idea that was dominant in the Nepalese communist movement has been shattered by the revolutionary theory through revolutionary practice. The door of the scientific process of developing and refining revolutionary theory through real revolutionary practice has been opened up." (Problems of Nepalese Revolution, Part-2, p. 40). Here, the idealism that goes from idea to idea that is prevalent in the Nepalese communist movement has been forcefully attacked, on one hand, and the theory of knowledge of dialectical materialism that goes from revolutionary theory to revolutionary practice has been tremendously grasped, on the other.

 Which one does have the principal role between matter and consciousness? Which is principal in between objective and subjective situation? In answer to these questions, he has firmly upheld the materialist concept, which holds, on one hand, that the object or objective situation is principal and, on the other, has grasped the dialectical concept that says the consciousness or subjective factor also influences the matter or the objective aspect. Comrade Prachanda says, "To think that the objective condition automatically prepares subjective situation in a mechanical and absolute way is against Marxist dialectics. Despite, matter is finally the main aspect in the interrelation between matter and consciousness, the later plays the main role in certain situation and the dialectical relation of one influencing the other between these two exists. It is also true in relation to the development of Maoist People's War. Therefore, what the Party is emphasizing is that People’s War in Nepal is, on one hand, the result of long class struggle and, on the other, the development of intense ideological struggle that has taken place for decades within the Nepalese communist movement. The historic initiation of People’s Warhead been possible only when the first factor prepared objective situation and second factor prepared the subjective one."  (Ibid., p. 59-60). Here, on one hand, the mechanical and spontaneous thinking that completely ignores the subjective preparation of revolution has been forcefully attacked and, on the other, light has been nicely shed upon the dialectical relation between objective and subjective factors and matter and consciousness.

 What is the source of knowledge and where does it come from? Firmly grasping the Maoist concept of theory of knowledge, Comrade Prachanda says, "According to Marxist science it comes from struggle. Mao has concretely formulated class struggle, struggle for production and scientific experiment as the source of knowledge. In its essence, Nepalese People’s War is the concrete expression of class struggle, struggle for production and scientific experiment." (Ibid., p. 114).

 While talking about the dialectical materialist theory of knowledge, Comrade Prachanda has in several places mentioned that the process of practice, knowledge, again practice, again knowledge is infinite. Through such remarks, he has on one hand, taken up practice as the measure of knowledge and, on one other, has firmly grasped the concept of two leaps in the theory of knowledge that takes place from practice to knowledge and vice versa.

 Comrade Prachanda has taken up very seriously the question of grasp of revolutionary theory, its application and development. He has been constantly emphasizing in the necessity of struggling against dogmatism and empiricism that are impediments to this process. He says, "For that one should study further deeply and grasp the scientific theories of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism and should be developed by using them in practice of class struggle. Ideologically, the struggle against dogmatism and empiricism should further be enhanced minutely and widely." (Ibid., p. 118). In the name of defending theory, dogmatism has been creating obstruction to its application and development. Likewise, in the name of developing theory, empiricism has been annihilating its revolutionary content. Theory of knowledge of Prachanda Path is directed against such both types of thinking. Defending the main spirit of revolutionary theory, it emphasizes on the question of developing it through practice.

 In the domain of theory of knowledge, Comrade Prachanda has firmly grasped the method of analysis and synthesis along with the scientific method of their application. He says, "We must emphasize upon synthesis and pay attention to analysis. Our spirit of emphasizing upon synthesis is to emphasize upon the overall situation, is to emphasize upon revolution and the meaning of paying attention to analysis is to pay attention to break up of an object and event into parts and scrutinize the real situation in them. If analysis is emphasized, it creates a danger of empiricism, departmentalism and regionalism. Only by emphasizing upon synthesis and paying attention to analysis we will not only understand correctly the relation between part and whole but will also be applying practically the kernel of changing the world." (Ibid., p. 46). This method of theory of knowledge of Prachanda Path is based upon the essence of dialectical materialism that helps understand and principally change the world.

(d) Enrichment and Development

 In the field of dialectical materialism, the basic concepts developed by Comrade Prachanda are: -
 First, the basic law of dialectics: Comrade Prachanda, by standing upon the footing of Maoist concept has enriched and developed the law of unity of opposites -- the basic law of dialectics -- in the course of class war and two line struggle, on one hand, and the ideological struggle against modern, dogmatic and pluralistic revisionism together with the weaknesses of Stalin, on the other. This concept has raised the development of dialectical materialist monism to a new height and it has universal significance.

 Second, transformation of quantity to quality: Comrade Prachanda, has further enriched and sharpened the Leninist concept on transformation of quantity to quality by presenting in the form of rupture, revolution, collision, qualitative leap and catastrophe.

 Third, theory of two leaps of knowledge: Comrade Prachanda has further refined and enriched the theory of two leaps of knowledge on matter and consciousness and objective and subjective factors. A lively dialectical unity of necessity and chance, reality and possibility, whole and part, content and form, theory and practice, analysis and synthesis is found to have been expressed in the theory of knowledge of Prachanda Path.

4. On Historical Materialism

 Comrade Prachanda, on the basic concepts of historical materialism says, "In each historic period, the level and nature of class struggle has been decided in accordance with the nature of contradiction between productive forces and production relation. But whatever be the level of development of productive forces the development of class struggle, in each historical periods, has taken place in the form of rupture in continuity, a conscious collision of forward-looking class against the regressive one that is in the form of revolution. This process of social revolution has neither taken place spontaneously and gradually nor has taken place in contrary to the development of objective situation by someone’s wish. But that is determined and restricted by the level of development of contradiction between the productive forces and production relation." (Ibid. Part-1, p. 2).

 Here, the contradiction between productive forces and production relation and class struggle has been taken up as the motive force of history and, the dialectical and historical materialist outlook, which regards history in the form of materialist qualitative leap, has been followed. In addition to this, the vulgar evolutionism that considers the development process of history in gradualism and, the historical idealism that regards history as an object of subjective wish, have both been forcefully opposed here.

(a) Historical Study of Nepalese Society

 On the process of historical development of Nepalese society, Comrade Prachanda says, "Nepal was divided into several tiny monarchial and different tribal republican states before the development of centralized feudal power. During that time, the form of monarchy and the state was not as of today. The fact that the Nepalese society has passed through a long historical process of changing King when necessary, electing king and punishing when fouled up helps understand more the psychological structure of today’s Nepalese society. ... With the division of classes in the society, relatively strong kings are found to have defined themselves as an incarnation of god." (Great Leap Forward..., p. 25-26).

 The facts that the process of development of Nepalese society had taken place through matriarchy to patriarchy, monarchy had taken birth through the traditional tribal process of selecting king, strength of monarchy was too weak initially but had gained it in the course of class division have been excellently presented here. Besides, the incarnationist concept regarding divine origin of the king has also been forcefully refuted here.

 How did the Nepalese society develop? Comrade Prachanda says, "When analyzing Nepal's history from the historical materialistic way, it can be easily inferred that Nepalese people have been struggling against complexities of natural forces and various man-made problems for their own survival and development. Modern Nepal was evolved through the struggle between and intermingling of, on the one hand; simple, innocent people struggling to live peacefully in steep slopes with their natural economic system and tribal culture, and at the other, the Hindus who had periodically intruded into this country from the south specially about 1000 years back with their superior technology of production and art of war after they were defeated by Muslims. In this historical process the rise of princes and chieftains and the struggle that kept pursuing between them has forced the people to be trained in violent struggle, which has been proved by the history. The Nepalese people who had acquired military and fighting prowess in the course of their historical development were able to fight bravely against the Britishers in the south and the Chinese in the north who were well equipped with modern knowledge, technique and weapons, during the later period. In the battles fought for their own sovereignty the children, old men, women, youths have demonstrated unprecedented sacrifices, bravery and cleverness on the basis of arms and ammunitions made in their own country. This had frightened and terrorized even large imperialist armies and their commanders and established the Nepalese (Gorkhali) people as one of the greatest fighters of the world. Even today any independent Nepali would feel proud when they remember the fighting prowess, bravery and sacrifice of the Nepalese people in the past history. It is a matter of no lesser pride that even Karl Marx, the proponent of communist ideology and the leader of the world proletariat, too, had appreciated the sacrifice, bravery and skill shown by the Nepalese people in those wars." (The Maoist, December 1995, p. 1)

 In the course of building Nepalese history, devotion of the masses, role of sacrifice and bravery, class struggle, use of violence and situation of different wars have been excellently projected here.
 On the basis of historical materialism, Comrade Prachanda has very deeply and objectively presented the question of establishment of central feudal power. He says, "The necessity of new production relation that was demanding development of preliminary productive forces made the presence of tiny kings, chieftains and tribal republics unnecessary in the country. This objective necessity led to develop a strong and centralized feudal power. To devaluate the fact that all the objective necessities were the reasons working from behind the success of Prithvi Narayan Shah’s campaign of expanding feudal power, despite being a newly emerged and a weak state, means only not to understand historical materialism. Here it is notable that the Nepalese process regarding the development of feudal absolute monarchy complies with the investigation and synthesis carried out by Frederick Engels in his book titled Family, Private Property and Origin of the State." (Great Leap Forward..., p.26).

 Here Comrade Prachanda has taken up the establishment of central feudal power as an objective necessity of the historical process of development of Nepalese society. But, along with this, he has equally paid attention to the negative aspect of establishment of central feudal power. He furthermore says, "The centralized feudal state in Nepal has, by imposing Hindu feudal and Brahminist racial chauvinism upon the lingual, religious, cultural and traditional democratic concepts and right of different races, indigenous people and regions has obstructed the development of real national unity and strength and, it is necessary to establish today a foundation of strong national unity based upon equality and independence according to the right of self- determination in the present context of New Democratic revolution." (Ibid., p. 33). Comrade Prachanda holds that the unification, which was carried out on the basis of Hindu feudal and Brahminist racial chauvinism by Prithvi Narayan Shah, was the obstruction for real national unity and, conversely, he specially emphasizes on building up a real and strong national unity in a new way on the basis of right of self-determination through New Democratic revolution.

 In the same document he says, "Even though it is considered sovereign formally, Nepal in reality, is passing through a semi-colonial condition since almost 200 years. This situation followed by infamous Sugauli Treaty with the British created an obstruction to the natural development of capitalism from the womb of feudalism in Nepal. Process of being disarrayed the economy, which was heading towards self-reliance through agriculture, business, exchange etc. has started since then by way of intrusion of foreign capital in the Nepalese society. Having some small industries been developed according to the interest of foreign capital Nepal turned serially into a semi-feudal condition from the feudal one. In this way, Nepal continues to be in a semi-feudal and semi-colonial condition till now." (Ibid., p. 25).

 The fact that intrusion of foreign capital after Sugauli Treaty has destroyed the self-reliant economy of Nepal and in this process Nepal was turned into a semi-feudal and semi-colonial country has been excellently exposed here.

 In this course, bureaucrat capitalism took birth in Nepal. It was another turning point in the history of Nepal. Comrade Prachanda has termed bureaucratic capitalism as a hybrid offspring that takes birth through an unholy alliance of feudalism and imperialism. In such process of coalition between feudalism and imperialism based upon bureaucratic capitalism, on one hand, national capitulationist betrayers came forth and, on the other, great patriots too took birth in Nepal. This alliance attempted to spread illusion on the question of nationalism and democracy among the people, in one side, and hatched numerous conspiracies to terminate mass movements from 1949 to 1990 into a deceitful compromise, on the other. Comrade Prachanda, explicating their character that makes people confused says, "Feudalism proclaims nationalism and imperialism does the same about democracy only with an aim of confusing the masses. It is clear from the specificity of the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution and our own experience in Nepal that feudalism does not go against imperialism and vice versa." (Ibid., p. 30).

 These ideas are very much serious on the question of nationalism and democracy. The tailism that follows king in the name of nationalism and runs after imperialism-expansionism in the name of democracy has been deadly in Nepalese communist movement. Here, the main spirit which Comrade Prachanda wants to state is that the revolutionary communists, dissecting those illusions spread among the people by feudalism and imperialism and opposing tailism, must strive hard to organize and develop the war of nationalism and democracy in their own independent initiative. Its content is that only the Communist Party can, in the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution, lead revolution aimed at nationalism and democracy, and only in this way, can it resolve the basic contradictions of the masses with feudalism and imperialism.

 In the context of studying the process of historical development of Nepalese society, an article entitled, "The Policy of War of Nepalese New Democratic Revolution in the Context of Historical Development", and written by Comrade Prachanda, carries special significance. In this article, a scientific study of armed rebellions and different mass movements that have taken place in the process of historical development of Nepalese society since 1949 has been carried out along with that of prevailing class struggle and war. As a conclusion of this study he says, "What can we say from the experience of history is that the tactics of encircling cities from the countryside agrees not only with the Marxist-Leninist-Maoist theory of protracted People’s War but also with the historical process of development of Nepal. There can be no question of a New Party and new society in the countries like ours without the protracted process of People’s War. The experience of class struggle has elucidated that People’s War does not have any alternative in today’s world. To enter into the course of People’s War by shattering the opportunist illusions that deceive people by saying that the mass movement and the parliamentary struggle is principal has now become a historical necessity. People are the creators of history. Providing leadership to the Nepalese people, who have a glorious history of heroism, is the duty of today for the communists." (The Maoist, p. 15).

 The fact that protracted People’s War in Nepal is inevitable not only on the basis of MLM but also on the basis of particularity of history and present of the Nepalese society has been excellently presented here. Also, the opportunism, which opposes People’s War saying that the mass movement and parliamentary struggle are principal here, has been exposed.

 What is clear from this study of the process of historical development of Nepalese society presented by Comrade Prachanda is that the Nepalese society, since its tribal stage, that is since matriarchal and patriarchal one, has developed to the present semi-feudal and semi-colonial condition with the process of struggle for production, class struggle and different kinds of wars and by passing through a course of establishing feudal central power carried out by tiny feudal states. Several insights and particular laws of Nepalese revolution have been revealed from this study of history.

(b) Context of World Revolution

 Comrade Prachanda, in course of studying the particularity of Nepalese society and revolution, has paid necessary attention to the context of revolution in South Asian countries too. Comrade Prachanda says, "Because of the distinct conditions of this region, it becomes clear that it is inevitable for the communist revolutionaries to devise an integrated strategy against the Indian ruling class of monopoly bourgeoisie and their agents in various countries. This inevitability has knocked at the door of the necessity of turning this region into a new Soviet federation of the twenty-first century." (Great Leap Forward…, p. 24)

 Here, special attention has been paid to the necessity of developing a unified strategy as a common responsibility of revolutionary Communist Parties of this region in their struggle against Indian expansionism. The concept of unified strategy and that of a New Soviet Federation carries special significance.

 Comrade Prachanda, in this course, has specially emphasized on the question of studying overall particularities of the present era of imperialism and proletarian revolution. Comrade Prachanda, discussing particularities of present day imperialism and positive and negative aspects it heralds  for revolution, says, "We must seriously pay attention to the subsequent distinct situation, created by imperialism with the evil intention of grabbing profits in the present world. Firstly, it has guaranteed the acceleration of the people's consciousness to move from the world of necessity to that of freedom, by linking high technology with the cheap labor of the huge population of the masses. Secondly, with globalization to grab profits, unprecedented development in the field of information technology, mainly electronics, has narrowed down the world just to a small rural unit. Therefore, it is very likely that an event in any place will have a great positive or negative impact on the world as a whole, and vice versa. Thirdly, the worldwide system of imperialism producing and distributing arms has been indirectly playing a role for the technical preparation of People’s War on a world scale. Fourthly, the unlimited production and globalization of its social process has strangely built up a material basis, in a rapid way, for the communist principle of work according to ability and distribution according to need. Fifthly, and mainly, imperialism, by intensifying the class struggle, principally the contradiction between imperialism and the oppressed countries and people, to the maximum, has been preparing a revolutionary objective situation for 80 per cent of the people of the world." (Great Leap Forward…, p. 19-20)

 The fact that an objective base for preparation of world People’s War and establishment of communism has been developing in the midst of globalization in compliance with the goal of imperialism grabbing profit and the intense development of productive forces including that of electronic technology has been excellently presented here. After Lenin and Mao, new particularities of economy of the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution have been inaugurated here very minutely, deeply and excellently.

 How would it be appropriate to think of the theoretical concepts of a revolutionary war in today’s new situation when the world in the process of globalization has been transformed into a small rural region? In an answer to this question he says, "Today, the fusion of the strategies of armed insurrection and protracted People’s War into one another has been essential. Without doing so, a genuine revolution seems impossible in any country." (The Great Leap Forward …, p. 20). On the theoretical concept of revolutionary war, this new theory of fusion of two strategies has universal significance.

 In the present situation of imperialist unipolar world order and its increasing intervention in Nepal, the development of ideological and political line guiding the revolution has been essential to enhance revolution in an appropriate way. Comrade Prachanda has specially emphasized on the question that the Party should be cautious in the struggle against dogmatism and empiricism, which can create obstruction to such development. He says, "The challenge, which has been erected, of leading revolution to victory by facing imperialist intervention and national capitulationism today, is ultimately a challenge of developing a correct ideological and political line. If a Party, failing to develop an ideological and political line for the new situation on the basis of concrete analysis of the concrete condition, is plagued by dogmatism or empiricism, then it will be impossible to lead revolution to victory." (Present Situation and Our Historical Task, p. 5). These ideas that have been presented here on the development of ideological and political line have far-reaching significance theoretically. This question of development of the line is closely linked with the great goal of accomplishing revolution and preventing counterrevolution.

 Comrade Prachanda, in the course of evaluating international communist movement and of opposing modern, dogmatic and pluralistic revisionism, in his document "The Great Leap Forward: An Inevitable Need of History" has raised several important questions that are based upon new curiosity and investigation on the history of Comintern, role of Stalin and counter-revolution in the socialist countries. It should be regarded as a specific microscopic vision on the application of dialectical materialism in history.

 As another link to this process, Comrade Prachanda, in the course of studying the experiences of revolutions and counterrevolutions in twentieth century, very seriously says, "Why all those parties that achieved victory by struggling, inside and outside of it, in the period of revolution ideologically against right, left and centrist deviations, being united with the necessity and interest of the masses and attaining unprecedented records of earth-shaking heroism, sacrifice in class war against enemy, turned all over the world into bureaucratic, revisionist, dissociated from the masses and counterrevolutionary ones relatively easily in a short span of time after seizure of power? Definitely, while arriving up to the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, MLM has provided a basic theoretical answer to this. But, the necessity of developing organizational principle, methodology and concept in those basic theories so as to apply them to prevent counterrevolution still prevails. It is the problem of scientific application and development of the theory of continued revolution under two-line struggle inside the Party and dictatorship of the proletariat." (Present Situation and Our Historic Task, p. 9).

 These ideas presented by Comrade Prachanda have come up by standing upon the foundation of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution but by advancing far ahead of that. Then, how can the theory of continued revolution be scientifically applied and developed under the two-line struggle and proletarian dictatorship? By drawing up the essence of experiences of history, Comrade Prachanda has, in answer to this question, put forward concept of the development of democracy in twenty-first century. This concept is related with party, army and the state power.

(C) The Basic Concept

 The study, which Comrade Prachanda made in the course of historical development of Nepalese society, political particularity of the present world and the experiences of world communist movement on the basis of dialectical materialist outlook, has presented, revealed and enriched several basic concepts of historical materialism. These concepts can shortly be presented as follow:

1) Role of the masses in making history: Against the role kings and heroes play and the incarnationist theory in making history Comrade Prachanda has presented Nepalese people as the creators of history. Comrade Prachanda has been grasping closely the role played by the masses in history and today’s world against class enemies and imperialism. Comrade Prachanda has a firm belief that the victory of revolution is ascertained however difficult and adverse situation it be if the masses are taken together. The mass line of Prachanda Path is based upon this concept.

2) Role of class struggle and use of force: Comrade Prachanda has very brilliantly revealed the role of struggle between productive forces and production relation, class struggle, different kinds of wars and violent revolution as the motive force of Nepalese history. In this context he has clarified the fact that guerrilla war of protracted nature has played a role in the process of historical development of Nepalese society. He has seriously embraced the universal significance of violent revolution. On the basis of historical particularity and MLM, grasping the theory of People’s War, Comrade Prachanda  has been developing it.

3) Relation between Nepalese revolution and world revolution: Comrade Prachanda has been grasping Nepalese New Democratic revolution as an inseparable part of world proletarian revolution. He has been excellently throwing light upon the fact that the influence of ups and downs and compatibility and adversity arising in the international situation has increased qualitatively for the reason that an unholy coalition has, in the present era of imperialism and proletarian revolution, taken place between feudalism and imperialism and beyond that the world has been narrowed owing to intense development of science and technology. He has regarded Nepal as a base area of world revolution. All these factors have played important role in deciding and developing the Party’s line.

4) Significance of conscious effort in history and revolution: Comrade Prachanda has sharpened the concept regarding the role of qualitative push and consciousness that the masses and revolutionaries should play in the development of history. All the concepts presented by Prachanda Path like, the leading role of the proletarian class, independent initiative, creativity, subjective preparation, qualitative push etc. that are necessary for revolution are based upon this fact.

5) Theory of continued revolution: It expresses the concept that the nature of two-line struggle is protracted according to the protracted nature of class struggle. This is based upon the concept of grasping seriously the experiences of revolution and counterrevolution and the theory of continued revolution under proletarian dictatorship that Comrade Mao developed during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

5. World Outlook and Line of Revolution

 There is dialectical relation between world outlook and the line. On one hand, the revolutionary world outlook plays an important role in building, refining and developing revolutionary line of a Party, whereas, the revolutionary line provides specific energy in the task of enriching and developing such world outlook, on the other. Prachanda Path has grasped the dialectical relation between world outlook and line exactly in this way. Comrade Prachanda has played a leading role in the task of determining and developing political and military line of Nepalese revolution based on the application of dialectical and historical materialism. This line is based upon the comprehensiveness of idea, policy, plan and program.

(a) The Question of Class Struggle

 On identification and handling of contradiction Comrade Prachanda says, "To wage People’s War, to accomplish revolution means to resolve antagonistic contradictions prevailing in the society. Not only one contradiction, there are numerous contradictions in any society and in our semi-feudal and semi-colonial society too. All the anti-feudal and anti-imperialist classes, levels and sects fall under people’s category (like for example, workers, poor peasants, rich peasants and petty bourgeoisie and up to national bourgeoisie). There are lots of contradictions among them too. Likewise, within the ruling class also there are contradictions among feudal, bureaucratic and comprador classes with one another and they exist within each class too. MLM has provided us a key to understand this mesh of contradictions and to advance society ahead by resolving them one by one. That has taught us a method of making effort to analyze classes, differentiate between enemy and ally, unite class allies against the main enemy by resolving contradictions with the former in a friendly way, find principal contradiction among those existing between ally and the enemy class, and not only that, use consciously the contradictions among enemy classes, hit at one target at one time with one fist and make another enemy a temporary ally, if possible, or if not, neutralize other one while hitting at one target. In this way, correct identification and handling of contradictions in the context of world, country, region, district, village and area at a certain time and also in the case of a particular action, is a guaranteed Marxist weapon for communist revolutionaries to develop revolutionary movement and lead people one by one to victory." (Problems of Nepalese Revolution, Part-2, p. 50-51).

 A philosophical insight of understanding the problems of class struggle on the basis of the laws of contradiction and resolving them has been presented here. A philosophical guidance to centralize attack upon main enemy, attract others to one’s own side or make effort to neutralize them and resolve contradictions among allies in a friendly way by carrying out concrete analysis of the concrete situation, has been presented here excellently.

 In the arena of political and military line, Prachanda Path has been effectively applying and establishing the concept of materialist dialectics of rupture in continuity, revolution, qualitative leap and catastrophe. The process of initiation of People's War, its continuity and development has taken place amidst innumerable series of people’s rebellions and shock-like military actions. In the task of bringing out originality, particularity and grandeur, the dialectics of Prachanda Path is very much militant, revolutionary and noble.

 The ideological, political and military line of Prachanda Path is based upon mass line. On this, Prachanda says, "By grasping the famous Marxist-Leninist-Maoist principle of ‘masses are the creators of history’ the Party is developing overall mass line according to the particular situation of Nepal. By synthesizing the historical process of rebellion of the masses, the Party has been emphasizing upon the question of organizing aspirations of people’s revolt. Without a goal of seizing people’s power through People's War, to talk of mass mobilization and mass line is revisionism." (The Great Leap Forward…, p. 71-72). This mass line is based upon the understanding of organizing aspirations of oppressed nations, indigenous, lower class and downtrodden people and women, developing People’s War with the goal of making masses the master of political power with their help and from the vision of people to people. Here revisionism that deceives people has been strongly opposed.

 Comrade Prachanda has specially emphasized on the question that necessitates developing ideological and political line to develop People’s War in the present situation when the danger of imperialist intervention is increasing. In this backdrop, what kinds of strategies and tactics are necessary to develop and devise? Answering this question Comrade Prachanda says, "An undeniable fact, which has been proved by the universal principles of MLM and experiences of history, is that it is possible to achieve success against imperialism only through the process of People's War. Possibility of Nepalese People’s War playing a role of historical significance by creating a new wave of world revolution in the present context, when the world opinion is agitated against imperialism, is becoming prominent. If Nepalese People’s War by getting plagued with right capitulationism or left adventurism suffers a setback, in this or that form, it will play a big negative role in the development of world revolution. Because of forceful victorious campaigns of past seven years and the present condition of strategic equilibrium the imperialist enemy has been compelled to adopt a new strategy against the People's War. The imperialism, taking into account of experiences of Indonesia, Chile, Vietnam, Nicaragua and latest Peru, is making effort to develop open and disguised strategy to annihilate Nepalese People's War. Among them to prepare for intense military offensive by establishing the accusation of terrorism is going to be the most effective way. In this situation, future development of Nepalese People’s War will not be so easy and straightforward. But, while advancing ahead on the basis of correct strategy and tactics and by making the world opinion agitated and offensive on imperialism it is fully possible to make revolution reach to victory. Definitely for this, the Party will have to go through several changes, twists and ups and downs in tactics. Here the main question is to remain firm in the strategic resolve of not letting to lower down the flag of revolution in the twenty-first century." (Present Situation and Our Historic Task, p. 5-6). These statements are rich from both angles of revolutionary optimism and science. By pointing out entire conspiratorial activities of imperialism against the great People's War, special attention has been paid here to the process of research and development of correct strategy and tactics against them in order to make revolution a success. It has opened up a new door of development in the line and technique of People's War.

(b) Question of Two-Line Struggle

 According to the understanding of Comrade Prachanda Communist Party is a division of one into two. He has taken up contradictions and two-line struggle existing in the Party as the main reason behind Party’s life and development. He has been emphasizing on the question of identifying correctly the contradiction, on the basis of materialist dialectics, inside the Party and going on resolving them. In this process, several lessons and concepts on two-line struggle have been developed.

 Comrade Prachanda says, "Main lesson that the communist revolutionaries must take from the overall experiences of Party unity and struggle is ‘emphasize upon ideological clarity, stand firmly placing politics at focus, becoming most flexible in minor tactical and practical questions, pay full attention to uniting revolutionaries by isolating opportunism’." (Problems of Nepalese Revolution, Part-2, p. 32). This lesson on the question of correctly understanding and handling two-line struggle has been established in the Party since long.

 On class struggle and two-line struggle, an important synthesis had taken place under Mao’s leadership during the period of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. What was mentioned in that synthesis is that the nature of two-line struggle inside the Party is also protracted in accordance with the protracted nature of class struggle in the society. These struggles do not disappear but exist sometimes in high and sometimes in low level like the waves in an ocean do and only by understanding such situation and the laws revealed thereof can the revolution be definitely advanced towards victory. Comrade Prachanda, quoting such concept on the question of synthesis, says, "The aforesaid synthesis regarding the nature of two-line struggle is the synthesis of MLM. The fact that two-line struggle is not a process that appears and disappears in times but is the one that exists constantly, sometimes in high and sometimes in low level is clear. When two-line struggle is not developed and expressed in higher form, then it is within the limit of non-antagonistic struggle and is resolved through the method of criticism, self-criticism and disciplinary action. But, when it develops and appears in higher form then that is expressed in antagonistic way, which is resolved through a qualitative method." (The Maoist, February 1999, p. 22).

 This concept, which has been synthesized by Comrade Prachanda from the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and our Party’s experiences, is understandable and substantial. This synthesis has provided new energy that has trained the Party in the question of advancing ahead by understanding correctly the two-line struggle existing in the entire international movement and learning positive and negative lessons from it.

 The dialectics of Prachanda Path considers Party as the unity of opposites. To resolve problems of two-line struggles by applying materialist dialectics in Party life, carry out struggle constantly against factionalism, splittism and all kinds of non-proletarian thinking, trends and styles of work, advance the process of rectification campaign ahead, propel the Party forward in a revolutionary direction by attaining height of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and going ahead of that achieving new unity in a new height amidst unity-struggle-transformation, make Party lively, dynamic, healthy and militant etc, are notable in this context. What is especially remarkable thing here is that the materialist dialectics of Prachanda Path has excellently succeeded in the task of shattering both the monolithic feudal world outlook and practice of Nepali Hoxaite Mohan Bikram Singh, who created an obstruction in Party unity by exercising factionalism and splittism. Apart from this, the dialectics of Prachanda Path has excellently succeeded also in struggles against liquidationism, anarchism, individualism, mean Alok tendency* and pluralism. It is in favor of unified and centralized leadership in all domains of idea, policy, plan, command and activities including organization and struggle.

 While speaking in overall, to apply materialist dialectics in the field of social revolution, class struggle and two-line struggle is the particularity of Prachanda Path. In the process of historical development of class struggle and present national and international particularity, the materialist dialectics of Prachanda Path is very much humble in determining and developing political and military line of Nepalese New Democratic revolution and advancing through resolution of problems of class and two-line struggles.

6. Development in the Field of Scientific Socialism

 Based upon and through the application of historical materialist outlook perceiving social life, revolution and party, Comrade Prachanda has developed some important theoretical concepts amidst the study of political economy of imperialism and that of bureaucratic capitalism and class analysis in Nepal. Those theoretical concepts can be presented in short in the following way.

(1) Development of Tactical Theories

 The fact that the development of tactical theories of Nepalese revolution has taken place in the form of Prachanda Path amidst great People’s War has been mentioned in the process of ideological synthesis. According to him those theories are, "Balance between political and military offensive, balance between local and central intervention, balance between People’s War and mass movement, balance between main and secondary force, balance between main and secondary regions, balance between centralization and decentralization, balance between independent initiative and tactical unity, dialogue and maneuvering, balance between local and central united fronts, balance between work inside and outside of country, balance between struggle and two-line struggle etc." (Problems of Nepalese Revolution, Part-2, p. 195). These tactical theories are based upon idea, policy, plan, and program. In addition to this, political slogan, people’s government, new people’s power, anti-imperialist strategy and tactics, handling of different contradictions etc. that have been presented and developed by Prachanda Path fall under tactical theories and many of them are of strategic significance too.

(2) Concept of Fusion Between Proletarian and National Liberation Movement

 This concept of fusion of proletarian revolutionary movement and national liberation movement into one another is based upon Leninism. It has inseparably linked up the question of right of self-determination of nations and local autonomy with proletarian internationalism.

(3) Theory of Fusion Between Strategies of Protracted People’s War and Insurrection

 Although the path of insurrection is basically necessary for developed countries and protracted People’s War for underdeveloped ones but in today’s context particularities of insurrection in protracted People’s War and vice versa are closely linked up. In this situation, the theory developed by fusion of protracted People’s War and insurrection has special significance and it has become universal.

(4) Concept of South Asian New Soviet Federation

 This concept is based upon the historic necessity of fighting jointly against Indian expansionism that has been a common enemy of revolutionary communist parties and oppressed masses of different countries in this South Asian region. This reflects theoretically the common feeling of historical friendship and aspiration of liberation that has developed since long among the people of different countries in this region.

(5) Theory of Development of Democracy in Twenty-First Century

 This theory is based upon the question of development of democracy in Party, army and people’s power. It has presented a concept that guarantees to keep Party, army and power under people’s control and supervision, use them in people’s service, democratize and revolutionize them continuously and ensure the right of rebellion in all of these three fields. Here, the things accounted for are to go on proletarizing the Communist Party constantly, ensure right to build another Communist Party by rebelling against if that goes wrong, participate one section of the Party in power and involve another section in people’s service, discourage use of force in two-line struggle, make army reach to people but not in barracks and arm the masses, ensure ally classes to participate competitively in the power and not confine to cooperative role only etc. In order to institutionalize these tasks, special emphasis has been given to build up and develop certain theories, methods and concepts.

 Someone may also perceive this great process suspiciously. Paying attention to that Comrade Prachanda says, "Here the question we have raised does not have any relation with treachery of those revisionists and liquidationists of different colors of the world who by opposing people’s democratic dictatorship or dictatorship of the proletariat have been entrapped into formal democracy of the bourgeoisie. Here our question is centered in the objective of developing state power as an institution that can organize the continuous flow of revolution. The real democratic dictatorship or proletarian dictatorship can ultimately be consolidated in the process of wide and lively democratization of the seizure of power. There can be no other meaning of democratic centralism, a great scientific theory, than this. Why the Parties, which succeeded to seize power by correctly exercising democratic centralism before capturing it, turned later to be victims of formal democracy and bureaucratic centralism? The logic that revisionism had been dominant inside the Party does not answer it fully. The weaknesses of this or that form that came into effect in the application of dialectical materialism also are responsible for it." (Present Situation and Our Task, p. 10).

 In the domain of history of revolution, class struggle and two-line struggle, the real value and importance of application of dialectical materialism has been very deeply and weightily displayed here. Attacking upon the tendency and thinking that tries to escape (from responsibility) by attributing revisionism for counterrevolution and continue exercising formal democracy and bureaucratic centralism, here, the fact that there had been weaknesses from Marxists in the course of applying dialectical materialism has been forcefully and effectively presented. Here the critical and revolutionary essence of dialectical materialism has been revealed very much creatively and militantly. The essence of new ideas on state power that Comrade Prachanda has presented is associated with the concept of consolidating proletarian dictatorship on the basis of development and wide democratization of the state power, an institution that can organize constant flow of revolution.

 In overall, this concept on the development of democracy in twenty-first century developed by Comrade Prachanda is the latest theoretical invention of MLM in the arena of scientific socialism. It has a far-reaching and epoch-making significance in the history of international communist movement. This new invention, by endowing quality to the development of Prachanda Path, has played a role of very strong theoretical foundation in order to raise it to the universal level.

7. Conclusion

 This is a short study brought about on the philosophical concept of Prachanda Path. This overall philosophical concept is based upon the dialectical unity between fundamental development of People’s War and fundamental ideas of Prachanda Path. Comrade Prachanda has played an excellent role in the task of developing theories of scientific socialism in the midst of applying dialectical materialism. This concept of development of democracy in the twenty-first century has, on one hand, charted a clear course to reach communism by shattering entire obstructions that come up in the socialist society and, on the other, has hit hard with a strong theoretical blow upon those class enemies and revisionists, who while pretending to be great democrats and accusing revolutionary communists of dogmatism, totalitarianism and mono-partyism, are in fact the real killers of people’s democracy. Summing up seriously the revolutions and counterrevolutions of twentieth century, we are going to accomplish a very new type of decisive People’s War in the twenty-first century on the basis of new enriched theories of democracy asserted by Prachanda Path.

 In the historical process of Nepalese society making a qualitative leap from the world of necessity to that of freedom, Prachanda Path has been imparting intense and accelerative motion to it through the great People's War. Along with the same accelerative motion of intense class war Prachanda Path also is developing. This is based upon a great goal and ideal of accomplishing revolution and preventing counterrevolution. Standing at the apex of MLM, facing intensive challenges of governing imperialism and proletarian revolution in the twenty-first century, Prachanda Path, which is struggling to explore great possibilities, has developed several new theoretical concepts. The theoretical contributions of Comrade Prachanda that have been enriched through new contents amidst the process of theoretical development and new inventions are demanding to be expressed accordingly in a few form. In this situation, Prachanda Path is now standing in a new turning point of history to make a qualitative leap in the process of becoming universal, not particular. We must be serious on expressing new content in a new form.

December, 2003



Footnotes
* i.e. the royalists
* i.e. autocratic monarchical system from 1960 to 1990
* A petty-bourgeois tendency represented by one Alok in the Party, which was exposed and defeated in the year 2000.