PROBLEMS & PROSPECTS OF REVOLUTION IN NEPAL
[A Collection of Articles by Com. Prachanda and Other Leaders of the CPN (Maoist)]

New Democratic Revolution and the Theory of People’s War
-Com. Prachanda

 Real advance of any revolutionary movement is impossible in the lack of ideological clarity. From the history to present, the question of ideology is found as the main reason of determining success and failure in the entire movements.

 Mao’s emphasis on the question that correctness or incorrectness of ideological and political line decides everything indicates this fact. Finally, how does the development of that clear scientific and revolutionary ideology take place? In short, it takes place in course of fighting against the wrong ideology. In thousands of years of history, whatever development mankind has achieved is the consequence of struggle. Today, Marxism-Leninism-Maoism represents a clear, scientific and revolutionary ideology as the reflection of entire struggle the mankind has carried out in the field of ideology.  In this context, it is urgent to understand the science of Mao’s emphasis on the fact that the human knowledge and consequently the social life develops in leap in the form of struggle for production, class struggle and the scientific experiment itself. Today the most severe attack is being done exactly upon this revolutionary and scientific ideology from the part of reactionaries and revisionists. In the present context, when a forceful attempt is being made from the camp of reactionaries and revisionists to make dominant the trends of anarchism, skepticism, liquidationism and capitulationism wide, it is necessary to raise struggle against these regressive ideas and trends further resolutely and courageously by those who think revolutionary movement is inevitable. This banner of struggle is the banner of progress and emancipation of mankind.

 To be clear on aforesaid ideas and context is of special significance while discussing on New Democratic revolution   and the theory of People’s War. Because all over the world today the most vitriolic attack from the side of reaction and reformism is being launched upon New Democratic revolution, theory of People’s War and mainly, upon Maoism. It is happening so due to the reason that Maoism represents Marxism in the development of class struggle in the world today. To devaluate Maoism is in fact to devaluate Marxism-Leninism itself and in that way is ultimately to devaluate the line of People’s War necessary for that. Clarity upon New Democratic revolution  and People’s War is impossible without the ideological guidance of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism.

 The concept of New Democratic revolution was developed with the concrete historical necessity of revolution. Historically, prior to the development of capitalism into monopoly capitalism or imperialism and prior to the forcefully increasing role of the proletariat in the international political arena, particularly before world historic importance of the great Russian October Socialist Revolution under Lenin’s leadership in 1917, the bourgeoisie played a progressive role in the fight against medieval feudal oppression. But because of the development of aforesaid historical situation the bourgeois class came to lose its progressive anti-feudal, and anti-foreign -encroachment and intervention character. The development of proletarian revolution went on proving it to be regressive in a fast pace. The bourgeois class reached at monopoly capitalism. Colluding with feudalism it started taking front against the most revolutionary class, the proletariat. In order to erect an empire in the backward countries, it widely broadened the process of exploitation, oppression, intervention and sabotage. By this, a specific situation of fighting simultaneously against feudalism and imperialism developed before a huge majority of nations and people of the earth who were floundering for emancipation from the medieval feudal oppression. Development of the backward nations of this sort took place into semi-feudal and semi-colonial condition in the form of distorted capitalism.

Nonetheless, the emerging bourgeois class that was developing in such countries had contradiction simultaneously with feudalism and imperialism. But, by completely loosing its ability to provide leadership in the decisive struggles it was proved to be very much vacillating and impotent.

 In this circumstance, a right tailist conception, which agues that leadership of struggle in the aforesaid types of countries should be left to the bourgeois class that has already become regressive, vacillating and incapable, in one hand, and a mechanical, sectarian and dogmatic concept that argued to make socialist revolution at once by crossing over the historical process of social development, on the other, were prevalent in the international communist movement. Lenin, raising forcefully the significance of struggle against both of these deviations, put forward historical facts that the leadership of the proletariat had become unavoidable in the revolutions of bourgeois character, too. As per this, in the fighting against the Czars, which were in feudal imperialist condition, and there was considerable industrial development in cites, comrade Lenin, by developing independent strategy and tactics of the proletariat, led revolutionary movement to victory. But Lenin himself had clearly stated that it is the historical duty of communist revolutionaries to develop real strategy and tactics of revolution in those countries where the industrial development is lagging behind, dominance of peasants based on medieval feudal production system exists and imperialist oppression prevails.

 In the mean time, most of the Communist Parties existing in the world failed to creatively develop revolutionary movement by studying this reality seriously in their respective countries on the basis of universal principals of Marxism-Leninism. They were victims of tailism or mechanical materialism. But the Communist Party of China accomplished this historic responsibility under the leadership of Mao Tse-tung. Clarifying the fact that it is inevitable to advance towards the goal of socialist revolution by accomplishing a new type of bourgeois democratic revolution under the leadership of the proletariat, as part of the world revolution, in such oppressed countries, Mao, led it to success by developing first of all the strategy and tactics of New Democratic revolution. Mao stated – it is really a mere imagination to make effort of building a socialist society over the rubble of colonial, semi-colonial and semi-feudal condition without a bourgeois democratic revolution of a new type under the leadership of the Communist Party. In this way, the entire conceptions Mao has developed regarding New Democratic revolution, have become universal guideline of emancipation to all those nations that have been victims simultaneously of dual exploitation and oppression of feudalism and imperialism. Marx and Engles had clarified the fact that the violent revolution has a universal character in the class society. Lenin further explained systematically and developed theoretical concepts regarding necessity of armed struggle in the course of implementing it in Russian revolution. Being based on the theoretical assertions of Marxism-Leninism on violent revolution and the experience acquired from their practical application, Mao developed the comprehensive theory of People’s War in the course of intense protracted war of accomplishing New Democratic revolution   in China. The theory of People’s War developed by Mao represents the apex of Marxist-Leninist military science and will be applied universally in all kinds of countries according to the situation. In this sense, it is impossible for any of them to become a genuine Marxist-Leninist revolutionary who opposes the theory of People’s War. Today the development of a revolutionary movement is possible only by being united in the process of waging People’s War in both types of developed and underdeveloped countries according to their respective situation. To make revolution in the present era of imperialism means in reality to smash the reaction through People’s War.

 The fact that Mao developed the theory of People’s War in the process of accomplishing New Democratic revolution clarifies close relation between them. For the success of a revolution in the country like ours that lies in the semi-feudal and semi-colonial condition it is essential to pass through the three stages of the strategic defense, equilibrium and strategic offence with the strategy of seizing towns from the rural areas. These assumptions are applicable at large and only in these application will the specificity of each country revealed. To talk of New Democratic revolution   by those elements that deny these basic concepts of People’s War does not prove to be anything in reality other than to an opportunist move of confusing the people. Since long, it was not thought seriously upon the strategy and tactics indispensable for protracted People’s War, which a Communist Party needs to implement for the success of New Democratic revolution   from the very beginning, for right opportunism remained dominant in it. Today the situation is so serious that the persons who advocated armed insurrection by developing mass movement have now earned the fame of being called a senior communist leader but merely talk of New Democratic revolution and Mao Thought without hesitation. The communist revolutionaries will be able to expose these opportunists, who talk of revolution by dissociating the inevitable relation between political and military strategy only through the development of People’s War. Because of wrong interpretation on the part of opportunists since long regarding New Democratic revolution, many cadres, supporters and sympathizers are confused about the aforesaid type of opportunism. Leadership of some of the groups that talk of New Democratic revolution   and Mao Thought has been confusing the masses for decades saying that People’s War should be waged tomorrow not today. For the opportunists of all shades, the Party, leader and activists that emphasize on Maoism, New Democratic revolution and principally the preparation of protracted People’s War have become the main hurdles to their deviation. Therefore, a united front has been built up among them for different kinds of propaganda and intrigues against such a party.
(September 1999)